One of the two most discussed and important issues in the current coronavirus fight is oxygen therapy, which I have already presented to you, and the other is vaccination. In this article I have tried to present in detail about the vaccine.
Talk about the beginning of the vaccine
Dr. Edward Jenner (British physician, 17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) has worked on a number of vaccines. However, the discovery of the smallpox vaccine from Cowpox in 1896 was a landmark event.
The variola vaccine, meaning the term vaccine and vaccination from cow pox, was first coined by Dr. Edward Jenner. Louis Pasteur (born December 27, 1822, Dole, France September died September 28, 1895, Saint-Cloud) invented the anthrax vaccine in 181.
Louis Pasteur was able to use this vaccine to protect sheep from the deadly anthrax. And he used the inactive or dead germs responsible for making anthrax vaccines. Louis Pasteur was later able to discover a vaccine for rabies.
What is a vaccine?
A vaccine is a weak, dead, attenuated micro-organism, or part of it, or an inactive toxin, which we call a toxoid. Or an antibody (which acts as an antigen) or a lymphocyte (Lymphocyte) that gives immunity to the body to protect against the disease after it enters the body.
Vaccines are used to build up active immunity in the body, while serum or immunoglobulins are used to create passive immunity. For example, direct disease is prevented with tetanus toxoid, and tetanus immunoglobulin is used to treat patients with tetanus.
How many types of vaccines?
There are several types according to the method of making or inventing. The same thing has already been mentioned in the previous definition of vaccine. You can learn more about them in the brief discussion below.
Here germs or viruses are inactivated by heat or chemical action. However, the bacterium is inactivated in such a way that its antigenic properties remain intact but it does not have the ability to cause disease.
- Vaccination against rabies.
- Poliomyelitis vaccine (Salk vaccine).
- Influenza vaccine.
- Cholera vaccine.
By culture, that is, first all the harmful properties of the germ or virus are inactivated or weakened and the vaccine is made with that weak virus or germ.
- Measles Vaccine.
- Mumps Vaccine.
- Poliomyelitis vaccine (Sabine Vaccine).
- German measles or rubella vaccine.
- Tuberculosis vaccine (BCG Vaccine).
- The rabies or rabies vaccine.
Sub unit vaccine
For this type of vaccine, the antigen that causes the disease is isolated and made into another bacterium. It is then injected into the body by attaching it to another virus-like particle. Influenza and hepatitis-B vaccines are notable, For example:
In the case of the hepatitis-B vaccine, the recombinant technique is used to isolate the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Escherichia coli is introduced into the germs and cultured. From there, HBsAg is isolated and administered as a vaccine.
Toxins such as tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough, etc. are introduced into the body by destroying its toxin properties and maintaining only antigenic properties. This creates immunity in the body. The main symptoms of these diseases are mainly due to these toxins. And it is possible to get protection from these diseases only if we can develop resistance against toxins.
Gene coded vaccine
Here genetic technology is used to remove harmful genes, then the antigens are made in large quantities and injected into the body through vaccines. In the case of human papilloma virus, the vaccine is administered by attaching the antigens to the virus-like particle (VLP).
There are many types of gene technology that will come to the fore when discussing the covid vaccine.
Vaccines to prevent coronavirus
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The above report is from August 30, but there are many patients and deaths beyond this calculation. This is the only recorded statistic, which does not include patients who have not been examined, who have died before reaching the hospital, or who have died of various complications.
However, roughly speaking, the number of infected patients is about 200 million, and the number of deaths is about half a million. It can now be said without hesitation that the number of infected patients and the number of deaths will increase further.
Personal safety policies, maintaining social distance, quarantine, isolation, lockdown, public immunization programs, etc. are all measures being taken to control coronavirus (COVID 19) infection.
But genetic mutations in the virus are constantly creating new variants, making it impossible to develop effective resistance. The control of this disease in the future depends on a few possibilities. E.g.
- Mutations of the virus cause it to become ineffective
- Public immunization programs result in the creation of herd immunity
- As a result of the disease, both death and non-aggression are created and a kind of balance is created
Finding effective antiviral drugs etc.
- However, as a result of mutations, one wave after another will keep coming, it may happen that people have to live with the virus (Symbiosis).
Vaccine used against Covid-19
At this stage I will discuss the vaccines that are being used or are being used worldwide to prevent coronavirus (COVID 19).
Messenger RNA vaccine (m-RNA vaccine)
Pfizer-Biontech and Modern Vaccines fall into this category. The m-RNA vaccine has already been used successfully to control the flu, Zika virus, rabies or cytomegalovirus (CMV).
The vaccine enters the m-RNA, which is covered by lipid or fatty nanoparticles, into the recipient’s cell and makes large amounts of spike protein with machinery in its cytoplasm.
At one point they come in contact with immunocompetent cells and produce antibodies against the corona virus and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte. This causes the body to develop resistance against coronavirus. m-RNA cannot enter the nucleus of the recipient cell, so there is no possibility of DNA damage.
Although the side effects are less after the first injection, there may be a few more side effects after the second dose, but none are as severe. This vaccine does not contain any virus particles, so there is no chance of covid.
Side effects may include allergic reactions, headaches, muscle aches, fever, chills, pain at the injection site, redness, swelling, vomiting, diarrhea, etc. No significant evidence of malignant myocarditis was found.
Emergency use of this vaccine (authorized for emergency use by the FDA under an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to prevent Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)) is generally allowed for anyone over the age of 12. This vaccine has not yet been proven to be safe in pregnancy.
Containers for this vaccine can usually be stored at temperatures ranging from -800 C to -800 C. The injection vial can be stored for up to 14 days at a temperature of -250 to -150 C. The vaccine is usually given by 2 injections at 6-week intervals.
The immunity that is formed 14 days after the first dose of Pfizer-Bioentech vaccine is about 80%, and after the second dose it goes up to 90%. If there is a shortage of vaccine supply, the difference between the two doses can be increased up to 24 weeks.
The maximum protection is available up to 6 months after the vaccine is given and the effectiveness decreases over time. So in the context of new research, the company has announced for a 3rd dose. The first two doses of Pfizer-Bioentech vaccine produce 5 to 10 times more antibodies than the third dose.
The results of using this vaccine are almost identical to those of the Pfizer-Biontech vaccine. Here m-RNA 1273 is used inside the lipid cover. It produces slightly altered spike proteins against which antibodies are made. This vaccine is about 90% effective against coronavirus and also works well against its variants. And this vaccine has to be stored at a temperature of -200 centigrade.
Viral Vector Vaccine
Vaccines in this category include:
Oxford – AstraZeneca
Johnson & Johnson / Janssen
Through this method, the scientists took the gene of the spike protein of the corona virus and introduced it into the adenovirus obtained from the body of the chimpanzee. Once this genetically modified adenovirus enters the body, it begins to make spike proteins, causing the body to make antibodies against this spike protein. And these antibodies protect against coronavirus.
In the case of the Oxford-Astrageneca and Johnson & Johnson vaccines, the vaccine is administered in two doses at intervals of 6 to 12 weeks. The vaccine can be stored in a normal refrigerator at a temperature of 20 to 60 centigrade. Immunity rates range from about 70 percent to 80 percent. However, even if the coronavirus attacks, it is usually limited to a mild attack. Vaccines are also fairly effective against other variants of coronavirus.
The Russian Sputnik V vaccine also belongs to the viral vector vaccine category. It can be lyophilized and stored at 20 to 60 centigrade. However, the method of vaccination is somewhat different. When the vaccine is pushed into the body, it is mixed with the solution and then injected.
Attempts are now being made to further boost immunity with one dose of estrogen and the next dose of Sputnik. Research on the subject is still ongoing.
Protein sub-unit vaccine
Phase-3 trials of this vaccine are underway. It has no genetic material inside, it is a full length spike protein trapped in nanoparticles. In just 21 days, the two doses provide about 90% protection and 75% -95% protection against the coronavirus variant. And the side effects of this vaccine are relatively low.
China’s Sinovac, Cansino, Sinopharma have developed vaccines in this way. Vaccines made by these Chinese companies are being exported not only in their own country but also abroad. These are made from dead virus particles, which are 80% to 90% effective. Vaccines can be stored in a refrigerator at a temperature of 20-60 centigrade.
Hundreds of health workers have been infected with Kovid after receiving two doses of the Chinese-made Sinovac vaccine in Thailand. In this context, the country has decided to take a vaccine from Oxford-AstraZeneca or Pfizer-Bioentech as a booster dose 3 to 4 weeks after receiving the two-dose vaccine from Sinovac.
However, the World Health Organization says that the ticker mix and match of all the companies has not been completed yet so it is still dangerous. However, there is no obstacle to accept that Pfizer and Oxford-AstraZeneca ticker mix and match is proven.
Viral DNA is injected into the DNA vaccine via plasmid or ring DNA. So far no one was able to send in the perfect solution, which is not strange. This is because of the potential for genetic mutations in humans.
Platform technology to save time
It used to take 10 years or more to make that vaccine. But now it is possible to make it in just a few months in case of emergency! But how?
Earlier, when making vaccines, everything had to start from scratch. But now with the use of platform technology, not everything has to be done from scratch. Such as m-RNA, DNA-Plasmid, Viral vector are all pre-made which can be used as a platform.
Now all that is needed is to create suitable genetic information, proteins or antigens. And then they are attached to the platform and inserted into the body, making a round vaccine. And the process of inventing vaccines using this platform is called platform technology.
Trade in vaccines
Those who are currently controlling the flow of information will also control the huge trade in vaccines. Big organizations are also biased in this regard. As a result, there is less information about vaccines in China or Russia. And the flow of information in Brazil or Bangladesh is even less. In order to stand tall in the world arena, not only the free flow of information, but also the fair share of information is required.
New information about the vaccine is constantly coming, the statistics are changing from time to time. So the time to speak last has not yet come.